About Peruvian Coffee
When it comes to Peru coffee, many people may not be familiar with it. Peru has located in the west of South America, with Ecuador and Colombia the north, Brazil in the east, and Bolivia and Chile in the south. The Pacific Ocean was located in the west of Peru, actually started to grow coffee in the mid-17th century, but the government collected most of the coffee for repayment of the national debt. Due to the debt of the Peru government to the United Kingdom, there are about 2 million hectares of land used to repay the United Kingdom, including coffee cultivation.
After that, they have paid back all the debt. Later, the land returned to the farmers. With the encouragement of the Peru government, coffee began to be grown in large quantities, and the growing area surrounded the Andes Mountains. The high-quality coffee was planted in the fertile soil between 1200 to 1800 meters, with the dry and rainy seasons, and the temperature difference between day and night can be between 2 degrees and 20 degrees Celsius; the environment is very suitable for the growth of coffee, which also prompted Peru to become a coffee exporter. The value of coffee export is about 28% of the total export value of Peru's products, the planting area has reached 380,000 hectares, and 160,000 families have cultivated it. Today, Peru is one of the primary producers of Arabica coffee, ranking fifth in the production and export of Arabica coffee in the world, and much more the organic coffee production is ranking first in the world.
圖為：Santa Claus 莊園（秘魯最好咖啡之一）
Many people say that Peru is a rising star in the coffee industry, and this is not an exaggeration. Peru held the Cup of Excellence for the first time in 2017. The Caturra and Bourbón varieties, using the washing method, won a high score of 92.25. In the 2018 COE, the wash method geisha of Nueva Alianza from Cusco also scored a high score of 91.08. In 2019, the new variety Costa Rica 95 also won the first place with 92.28 points. Besides, the new Centroamericano H1 variety using the honey treatments went in the top ten. Peru's excellent environment, coupled with hard-working farmers, Peru, is a dark horse of South American coffee-producing countries.
Introduce Peruvian coffee varieties
Nowadays, In all of Peru coffee produced, 70% is Typica and Caturra, Catuai and Catimor, Bourbon and Pasche around 30%.
In recent years, GEISHA has also planted. With fantastic flavor performance, GEISHA will become a very competitive product in the future, and it is a rising star.
New coffee treatment
Peru is full of water resources. The traditional treatment washed coffee, and then natural processing. At the coffee farms who cooperate with Vela Ethan, the new treatments include red honey, double anaerobic fermentation with washed or anaerobic fermentation with natural.
For example, the process of double anaerobic fermentation with washed- In the first stage, the coffee bean with the peel (Exocarp) placed in a closed bucket for 14 hours; In the second stage, removing the peel; In the third stage, leaving part of the pulp and peel for a second fermentation for 24 hours; Finally, washed with water three times after that with drying and shelling.
The critical part is when anaerobic fermentation, the temperature-controlled between 18-22 degrees, and the drying temperature controlled in 30-35 degrees.
Peru's main coffee producing regions
Peruvian coffee regions are located in the Andean mountains, Which are blessed with fertile soils as well as rainy and cloudy weather. Said conditions determine the exceptional characteristics of a specialty coffee, along with careful harvest. Thus, the beans obtained present organoleptic features that assure an aromatic and delicious brew, complying with the requirements of the most demanding markets in the USA, Europe and Asia.
In Peru, almost 90% of coffee plants grow under shade. All processes are carried out taking special of the ecosystem and in harmony with the environment.
Peru's coffee-growing areas cover 210 rural areas (covering 47 of the 13 districts), including jungles, mountains, and coastal areas. In Peru, 85 percent of coffee farmers each own 0.5 to 5 hectares of land. Peru is mainly distributed from north to south in three producing regions, while the average harvest time runs from June to September.
43% of the total coffee hectares are located in the north. Include the departments of Amazonas, Cajamarca, Piura, and San Martin. Piura is located on the Pacific coast. It is not as well known as other regions and has relatively low production. Agriculture concentrated in the province of Huancabamba, which is 900-2,000 meters above sea level. Typica, Caturra and Catimore are the most common varieties in these arears.
Despite its low productivity, the coffee here tends to have a balanced acidity, good body and dark chocolate aromas, caramel, and nutty aromas. Next to Piura, you'll find the Cajamarca area. It is Peru's largest coffee-growing province, with an average elevation of 900-1,950 meters. Most varieties are Typica, Caturra, and Bourbon as well. The area is known for its high acidity and sweet coffee with a red and yellow fruity flavor.
Besides, coffee was also grown in large quantities in the Cutervo region, where sugar cane initially produced. It has an average altitude of 1600-2100 meters. Most of the varieties here include Catimore, Pache, Bourbon, Typica, and a small number of Pacamara.
Move northeast to the Amazon region. In addition to the world's most famous jungle, Amazon also has seven different coffee-producing provinces. The Andes cross the region at altitudes ranging from 900 to 2,100 meters. As in Piura, Typica, Caturra, and Catimore shared here. Flavors are sun-dried fruit, taffy, candy flavor, and even alcohol thickness and acidity.
Continue to the northeast and come to San Martin.' Coffee produced in the area is similar to Amazon's coffee, but with a medium body and chocolate, nuts and caramel flavor. "San Martin is low in altitude, but coffee production is high. "It is located on the eastern slope of the Andes, at an altitude of 900-1,200 meters, with a tropical and subtropical climate.
34% of the total coffee hectares are located in the central region. Include the departments of Huanuco, Junin, Pasco, and Ucayali. Huanuco is located northeast of Lima, a western suburb of the Andes mountain, at an altitude of 900-2,000 meters. The coffee-growing area surrounded by forests, waterfalls, stone caves, and a variety of flora and fauna. Typica, Caturra, and Catimor are common here (as well as cocoa beans). Huanuco‘s coffee with a combination of orange aroma and caramel sweetness, with bright acidity and a soft, mellow flavor.
Next to the Huanuco, that contact with the Pasco area which located surround of Amazon jungle and the Andes. But coffee production here is low because of climate situations.
Junin, south of the Pasco area, in the largest area of coffee production. With varieties such as Caturra, Catimore, and Typica. Besides, with an average elevation of 900-1,800 meters, the coffee flavor is mainly presented in black and yellow fruits, bright acidity, and grease—balanced acidity with the chocolate body.
23% of the total coffee hectares are located in the south. Include the departments of Ayacucho,Cusco,Madre de Dios and Puno.
Cuzco in the south-east is 900-2,000 meters above sea level. Most of the coffee varieties here are Caturra, Bourbon, and Typica. The climate and soil of the area are ideal for high-quality coffee, with flavors such as red and black fruit, plums, and raisins, as well as a vibrant chocolate flavor, creamy mellowness, and medium acidity.
Ayacucho averages between 1,600 and 1,900 meters above sea level, but is far less productive than the rest of Peru. Farms tend to concentrated in Huanta, and Caturra and Typica are grown. However, the region is a relatively new place to produce high-quality coffee, and last but just as important is Puno on the southeastern edge of Peru. It borders Bolivia at an altitude of 900-1,800 meters.
Puno region, which is rich in specialty coffee, has fertile soil and favorable climatic conditions that make its coffee flavor with flavors such as fennel, polo, and other tropical fruits, multi-level taste, and the sweet taste of taffy with balanced acidity.